此外，与旨在保持土壤健康和肥力的混合种植或间作等可持续农业做法相比，这些做法是不可持续的(Schütte, Eckerstorfer和Rastelli 5)。这也导致了一些作物种植中更高的劳动力需求。
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) have brought about a revolution in food production in terms of increased productivity of land and have doubled the yield (Watson and Preedy XII). It has had significant bearings on food security especially in the developing world. There have been several concerns about the “unintended” effects of extensive use of GMO in agriculture.
The unique selling proposition of the genetically modified crops was either herbicide resistance or insect resistant. While the initial argument was that weeds or other unwanted plants would not evolve or adapt to these modifications very fast, it was soon found that new and more resistant forms of agricultural weeds developed contributing adversely to both agricultural productivity and loss of natural biodiversity (Schütte, Eckerstorfer and Rastelli 5). It impacted both the indigenous plants of the area and the animals specially the arthropods (insects like bees which facilitate pollination). Even in terms of herbicide use, while the plants were herbicide tolerant and the use of herbicide declined in the first few years, eventually, the weeds adapted to the herbicides. Repeated use of Glyphosphates (the most popular herbicide used) without any change in the usage pattern led to generation of weeds which were resistant to the chemical (Bonny 43). Given that, weed management is difficult and farmers are unaware of properties of herbicides and other weed repellents (Bonny 40). It has become a difficult proposition to escape the infestation of weeds in agriculture post extensive usage of GM crops.
Furthermore, these practices are not sustainable with sustainable agricultural practices like mixed cropping or intercropping which is designed to retain health and fertility of the soils (Schütte, Eckerstorfer and Rastelli 5). It led to higher labor demand in several crop cultivations as well.
It turns out that the boastings of genetically modified plants after all were more of a hyperbole for even the productivity of these plants that were not significantly high when considered over a long period of time. In essence, GM crops have turned out to be more focused on increasing farm-level productivity and have failed magnificently in integrating externalities such as enhancement of biodiversity, environmental protection, reduced use of labor or even better management of weed.