排放论(Emiseration or immiseration thesis)直接源自马克思对资本主义社会经济发展的分析，认为资本主义生产的本质导致了实际工资的降低。相对于社会的总价值创造，工资增长减少了，受影响的是价值的创造者，而不是所有者(Ramirz, 2007)。这反过来又会导致异化效应的恶化，因为工人无法从市场上买回产品(Bakshi, 2011)。
Marxism can be described as concepts, ideology or system drawn from economic and social theories of Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxism is essentially “A theory in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social change in Western societies” . The philosophy of Marxism is an antithesis of capitalism which is “an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods, characterized by a free competitive market and motivation by profit” .
Marxism opposes and criticises the capitalistic philosophy and in doing so has considered public ownership and productive life of man as the prime aspects of society. Public ownership is the backbone of distribution, production and exchange in Marxism. Marxism as an antithesis to capitalism was born in a time when the working-class people only possessed the capacity to work and this was all they could sell. The people sell their capacity to work, and also the products of the labour. Class according to Marx is defined in this context. The relations of the members of society and their means to production are the very basis for class definition. In the context of capitalism, workers are paid only a minimum wage as their salary and here the worker is alienated because they sell off their rights to the products they have created.
Essentially, the worker has no control over their labour, the product, its sales and the profits accrued in its sales. While capitalists do sell products based on the labour value involved, only a minimum wage reaches the person who has input the labour (Fracchia, 2008). Much of the surplus value that is accrued in the sales becomes the profit of the owner and not the labourer. “Surplus value is the difference between what the worker is paid and the price for which the product is sold” (Philosophy, 2018, para. 3). According to Marx, this results in a situation of increasing immiseration or emiseration. Immiseration means economic impoverishment.
Emiseration or immiseration thesis derived directly from Marxian analysis of economic development in capitalistic societies argues that the nature of capitalistic production results in reduced real wages. There is reduced wage growth relative to the total value creation in society and it is the creator of value that suffers, and not the owners (Ramirz, 2007). This in turn leads to worsening effects of alienation where workers are not able to afford to buy back products from the market (Bakshi, 2011).