René Descartes is a French philosopher, writer and mathematician who is known as the father of modern philosophy and also about the much more subsequent western philosophy. The main areas of interests included metaphysics, epistemology, and mathematics. He proposed a number of notable ideas such as cotigo, ergo sum, method of doubts, method of normal, Cartesian coordinate system etc. He also gives the principle of dualism and suggested that the human body is similar to a machine and bears the properties similar to it. On the other hand, he said that the human mind was a non-material thing. In addition to this he also proposed moral philosophy. He also wrote a number of books related to mathematics and philosophy.
François-Marie Arouet was a well-known French enlightenment writer and a famous historian philosopher. Born in 1694 he was popularity known as Volatire. He was famous for his attacks on the Catholic Church and his advocacy on the freedom of religion expression. He wanted to separate Church and the state. As a versatile writer he wrote in a large number of literary forms such as plays, poems, novels, essays and other historic and scientific works. He had written over 20000 letters and 2000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken person. Though, he was placed under the strict censorship during those times, his voice didn’t go down. He used his works in order to put forward his criticism on intolerance and religious dogma.