1865 – 1866年，新的南方州立法机构通过了限制性的“黑人法典”，以控制奴隶和非裔美国人的劳动和行为。这些法规导致了北方的愤慨，并减少了对总统重建方式的支持，结果导致了共和党更为激进的胜利（Fritz，2007）。美国从英国独立出来的民主革命，是一个深刻的悖论。世界领先的拥有最高掌权的政治民主模式是美国革命的结果。
In 1865-1866 the restrictive ‘black codes’ were passed by the new southern state legislatures for controlling the labor and behavior of slaves and African Americans. These codes led to the outrage in the North and diminished the support for the approach of the Presidential Reconstruction and this resulted with more radical wings of the Republican Party which was led in triumph (Fritz, 2007). A profound paradox was laid for the democratic revolution through which the United States got its independence from British. The world’s leading model for political democracy with the highest slaveholding powers were the results of the American Revolution.
African Americans that comprises of 20% of the total population were in bondage with the uneasy coexistence of freedom of whites. In 1787 at Constitutional Convention the federal Union embodied the contradiction when the right of a state for regulation slaves under its jurisdiction was recognized under the Constitution of United States (Morris, 1996). The proposed Union was never been joined by the slave states if the sovereign power over slavery was not expressed with acknowledgement. Therefore the slavery of blacks and the liberty of whites formed the basis of creation of federal Union and were joined constitutionally.
The social and economic patterns of development were also diverged along with the sectional lines sharply but at the same time the political power of the South’s national share slipped. The South in 1820 in the House of Representatives had only 42% votes due to the imbalanced power in the North in 1790. The White southerners for the first time due to their worry about the increasing minority status and even due to enraged because of the Northern attempt for forcing emancipation over Missouri in 1819 (Hall, 1996).