It is referred to the extent to which individuals are trained to look after themselves or indulge themselves in collective groups form. To make it comprehensive, individualism is defined as a society in which the ties between individuals are loose: that is they are not a part of group or people or do not have to look after a mass group, apart from themselves or their immediate family. On the other hand, collectivism is referred to a society in which individuals are strongly integrated into groups based on their geographic location, case or religion. The metric for evaluation of collectivism and individualism is defined through IDV (Individualism Index). Workforce based on individualism approach is self- reliant and liberal as compared to collectivism based people. Individualism promotes protection of self- esteem and self- interest while making confident workforce for an organization. On the other hand, collectivism based workforce looks for support and suggestions in an organization.
Hofstede’s studies shows that approaches of men and women towards work vary with their culture, country and even occupation. Masculinity refers to a society where men hold an assertive position. They are tough, empowered, decisive, and rigid and considered as head of the family. In this culture women are supposed to be tender, compromising, caring and supporting their men on their decisions, while femininity refers the culture in while roles of men and women do not have rigid boundary. Their roles may overlap each other’s role. Women are equally empowered as men. Their suggestions and decisions are equally important. They are not supposed to take care of the family rather they make their own careers and are self- reliant. Masculinity of any society is defined by a metric ‘MAS’ (masculinity index). People belonging to lower MAS societies are often more cooperative, friendly with staff, support and respect each other’s suggestions, and believe in promotion based on merit.