- Performance orientation: this style of leadership focuses on inspiring people around a vision and exhibits high standards and innovation. Middle Eastern countries give lesser preference to this style than American and most European cluster. African and East European countries perceive the style in a neutral manner.
- Participative: the style emphasizes bringing all stakeholders together in decision making process and implementing those. Few European and English speaking countries give high preference to this style while lesser importance shown by South East Asian and Middle Eastern countries.
iii. Humane: this style involves around leadership traits like consideration, patience, and showing tendency of concerns for others. Most European social clusters give less importance to this style of leadership, while African, Confucian and South East Asian countries perceive with higher importance.
- Self-protective: the style shows leadership inclination towards protecting individual and personal security. Middle Eastern countries exhibit highest preference to protective style of leadership. But English speaking European countries and other middle European clusters pay less importance to this style (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004).
Hence it is evidently clear that leadership attributes do not reflect uniformly across the globe. The desire for a set of attributes in a leader changes from societies and countries. It would not be correct to deduct that a particular leadership attribute will have similar acceptance and desirability across all countries.