研究人员引用Leslie Lamport的话说:“分布式系统是这样一种系统:一台你甚至不知道存在的计算机发生故障，会导致你自己的计算机无法使用”(Cachin et al.， 2011, p.1)。在某人自己使用的系统中的故障问题上下文中，可以说故障是本地化的。另一方面，当多台计算机工作时，故障可以归咎于正在工作的许多系统之一，那么它可能会导致问题。在分布式系统工作和分布式编程的情况下，有必要关注这种多样性，因为它不同于普通编程。第二章是一些最基本的抽象概念。首先给出了抽象过程，然后给出了哈希函数、消息认证码mac和数字签名等加密抽象。在抽象通信中，给出了链路失效、公平损失链路、顽固链路、完美链路、已记录的完美链路等。
The book is divided into seven different chapters. The first of the chapter is about the need for understanding programming abstractions and faults. More specifically, the motivation, the form of distributed programming abstractions, the software components are considered in such general implementations and the classes of algorithms are presented. The focus here is on introducing the reader to some of the concepts that are the key to understanding the rest of the book. The classes of algorithms subsection in the first chapter are especially useful for a reader who has not taken up study of algorithms extensively. This could help prepare the reader more extensively for understanding the abstractions presented in the second chapter. The use of a chapter to first highlight the need for understanding the forms of programming abstractions is helpful for the first time reader or a beginner. It enables the reader to actually understand why such attention is needed. In security and reliability concerns of any programming it is observed that most times programmers forget some of the most basic issues that could exist.
The researchers cite Leslie Lamport here as they state “A distributed system is one in which the failure of a computer you did not even know existed can render your own computer unusable” (Cachin et al., 2011, p.1). In the context of a failure issue in a system that someone uses as in their own it could be said that the failure is localized. On the other hand, when multiple computers work and failure can be attributed to one of the many systems that are working then it could result in issues. In the case of distributed system working and distributed programming it is necessary to focus on such multiplicity as this makes it different from normal programming. The second chapter is on some of the most basic abstractions. Primarily, the abstracting processes are presented, followed by the cryptographic abstractions such as the Hash functions, the message authentication codes MACs and the digital signatures etc. In abstracting communication, link failures, fair loss links, stubborn links, perfect links, logged perfect links and more are presented.