The pathology identified for Alzheimer’s disease and its impact on dementia influences the clinical criteria and functionalities. There are basic criteria for MCI. These are:
– Absence of dementia
– Cognitive complaint on subjective basis
– Normalcy in daily routine
– Objective memory issues such as neuropsychological problem or poor functioning of actual functions or abnormality in education with respect to the age of patient
To study these patients, neuroimaging and biomarker techniques are used. These are meant to enhance the patient selection in such clinical trials. However, biomarkers are required on a long term basis to determine patients who are prone to high risk situations and also to monitor the disease progression within a person. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a clinical approach followed to determine the energy of protons, tissue components and brain functionalities (Korolev, 2014). It also studies the regional patterns to understand the exposure of patient to the disease to a better extent.
As the situation worsens, functional MRI is used to study the brain and notice the dependence level between blood and oxygen. Yet another tool that is meant to study such patients is mini mental state evaluation. This is a cognitive screening process that follows a globally accepted framework to study the mental functions and it does not work on the abnormal behaviour or mood or thought patterns. The aim is to only observe the cognitive skill. This clinical technique stands as a base to several patients who are at their early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.
Dementia is often studied with the help of computed tomography (CT) scan as it omits the structural brain lesions and assesses the basic causes that are found to develop dementia syndrome (Melesie and Dinsa, 2013). Few indicators that are set to carry out the scanning include hydrocephalus at a normal pressure, sudden development of head trauma and unexpected cognitive impairment.
Immunotherapy is a clinical feature meant to deal with Alzheimer’s disease. The process reduces the deposition of alpha and beta cells in patients and hence, the plaque deposition also decreases. However, the possibilities for cognitive improvement are extremely lesser. New clinical trials have been introduced to target the disease. As tau is targeted, the microtubules achieve stabilization and the transport of nutrition between cells increases. Inhibitors like secretase are also used to reduce the accumulation of plaques that lead to degeneration of brain neurons. Antioxidants and hormones are infused to improve the cognitive ability of the patients but the results are unknown (Duthey, 2013). There are no significant changes found within the patient. Image therapy and radiology can help reduce the impact that Alzheimer’s disease and dementia have created.