Fragmentation of the wetlands may result in the huge change in the overall composition as there is a replacement of the wetland species by the upland species, huge of a large number of species, loss of genetic species where the isolated habitats are very small and they do not support the large structures (Allison et al 4113).
Also, it leads to an alteration in the patterns of the sedimentations and there is an effect on the normal slow flow of water through the wetlands. Also, there may be high sediment loads which can enter the wetlands through different channels and irrigation. This can affect the smoother aquatic vegetation and tidal flats. It will also lead to the increase in turbidity. Fragmentation is a result of channelization and the modification of channels. This also spoils the banks and lead to the increase in the stagnation of water (Penland et al 417).
It has been observed that as result of consistent, fragmentation of the landscapes has disturbed the flow of nature in Louisiana. The change in the configuration of the entire landscape in the wetlands of Louisiana has a great impact on ecosystem.
The process of fragmentation of land is a problem which has been started around 100 years back. There have been various control structures being built over the area. This may include the creation of dams of the leeves in the rivers, the degradation of canals and draining. It is observed that around 30 % of the water from the Mississippi river is being diverted into the Atchafalaya River System in order to ensure less flooding there. Because of this fragmentation, there has been a huge decrease in the sedimentary load, which has reached to the mouth of the river, and has led to the formation of a new and a different basis for the costal land .
Similarly, the construction of the leeves is also having a significant impact on the costal land. In general, a large part of sediments is gathered and accumulated by the seasonal flooding. However, in recent years, it has been observed that the overbank sedimentation process and the flood overtopping which are considered to be very important for the existence of marshes have been dramatically reduced. Due to this, the sediments which are gathered by the marshes are getting less and less. This is another impact of fragmentation of land. Also, once the marshes are degraded, they do not have the ability to regenerate themselves.
Due to a recent human activity MGRO (Mississippi River Gulf Outlet), there has been degrading of the land. It was created in the year 1960 with an aim to facilitate the passage of the ships in the Gulf of Mexico. However, because of the same, around 23000 acres of wetlands have been destroyed. Yet, this is another example of the impact of fragmentation of land. From the beginning, it has been observed that MRGO has grown to around 2.5 times of its original size. According to the researchers, it had occupied around 6.8 % of the total area. There have been a number of other problems which have led to the problem of land loss due to fragmentation. Low density development activities which are being taking place in Louisiana has also led to the increase in fragmentation leading to land loss in this area (Olea et al 1025).
Recent increase in the fragmentation of the land in Louisiana is a major threat to the efficiency of production and increase in land loss. Because of creation of more and more fragments around the coast, there will be an impact of fragments as more and more amount of land will be submerging into the sea. Because of the fragmentation of land in the coastal areas, there is also an increase of impervious surface which has a large number of indirect effects such as the decrease in the quality of water and water filtration. Poor decisions related to land use can lead to the reduction of biodiversity, hastening of species in the coastal areas, cut off the access from the shore and damage the ecosystems. Because of the far reaching impacts of the use of land, dispersed and large lot development, there is loss of wetlands. In the present times, there is a requirement for the proper management of land. It is important to ensure that the loss of land is minimum as it will lead to the serious problem in the coming future (Tweel et al 18).
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