Nissen, Evald和Clarke(2014)选择了三个PPP项目来了解PPP面临的挑战。研究发现，计划和愿景的同质性问题导致了伙伴关系中不同逻辑和目标的发展。事实上，这个群体内部存在着多样性。研究发现，将利益相关者的意识形态和观点整合在一起的公司能够发展出更具协作性和合作性的互动(Opawole and Jagboro, 2016)。发现了更多的创新过程。这些异质团队能够开发一个共同的知识库，并受到外部事件的积极挑战，这些外部事件有助于他们的创新和生产力。进行了一项研究，以解释PPP所涉及的代理成本。重点是在项目执行期间存在的组织形式和固有的不确定性。在这个案例中，我们的假设是动态道德风险环境(Iossa和Martimort, 2012)。
Lack of a proper communication and relationship management would lead to several issues. Rufín and Rivera-Santos (2012) analysed that for the organizations to meet objectives, they should be able to address some of the intangibles as well as the tangibles involved in the situation. It is important for the PPP to have a governance system that is not only based on the government for support. There should be development of alternative plans or proposals in place to deal with the complex alliances. There should be more importance given to the trust-based governance in this process. Lack of this trust is the main issue. Winch (2014) stated that in the case of PPP, the important factors are stakeholder knowledge about the issues in contention, management commitment towards growth and communication. Apart from this, there should be interface and cohesive operation that should exist between the commercial, resourcing and governance. There should be temporarily newer paradigms or heuristics that should be developed to address issues of permanent organizations to develop the intended output for each organization (Winch, 2014).
Nissen, Evald and Clarke (2014) had chosen three PPP projects to understand about the challenges of the PPP. It was found that the issue of a homogenous plan and vision lead to developing of dissimilar logics and objectives within the partnership. In reality, there is diversity within the group. It was found that the companies that integrate the ideologies and views of the stakeholders were able to develop a more collaborative and cooperative interactions (Opawole and Jagboro, 2016). There was more innovation process that was found. These heterogeneous teams were able to develop a common knowledge base and were positively challenged by the external events that aided in their innovation and productivity. A study was undertaken to decipher about the agency costs involved in a PPP. There was focus given towards organizational forms and innate uncertainty that exists during project implementation. The assumption that was made in this case was the dynamic moral hazard environment (Iossa and Martimort, 2012).