美国代写-在买家供应商之间增加权力的方法。在买家供应商之间的关系是自然和主要偏差这两个很少平等(Kö维勒和夯,2012)。然而，政党可以通过增加权力的方式来与对手达成更好的协议。当一个供应商是唯一的独家营销，并有一个独特的产品，它可以选择买家或超市打算出售的产品(Zolghadri et al.， 2011)。在这种情况下，一个供应商，如食品和饮料独家菜，是强大的杠杆作用与多个买家的权力，从而确保一个有利可图的合同。在这种情况下，供应商要求在合同中加入“机会主义”、“道德风险”等条款。它还要求把所有关于信息处理和信息不对称的信息都摆出来。例如，当特易购这样的买家将其服务外包给IBM或西门子时，它会在合同中加入信息不对称的硬性条款，以减少为了自身利益而滥用权力的一方。
Power in a buyer supplier relationship is natural and is mostly misaligned among the two and is seldom equal (Köhler and Rammer, 2012). However, there are ways in which power can be increased by a party to get a better deal with its counterpart.
Strategies to leverage power in the downstream
1. B2B advertising
When IBM uses the B2B advertising campaigns, it uses power to be leveraged among all its downstream suppliers or customers. They do it by using business to business advertising, thereby keeping the actual downstream advertisers at bay and disadvantaged. This compels them to agree to IBM’s terms of advertising.
2. Lock in strategy
Companies’ uses lock-in strategies to use power on downstream partners. For example, as a renowned company, Apple uses its brand name and image to discourage customers and suppliers by raising switching costs to a rival. By this way, it keeps its downstream partners in line with their expectations and strategic advantage.
3. Premium pricing
This is one interesting tool of discouraging downstream partners to dissociate with companies. For instance, Samsung or a furniture brand like Hettich uses premium prices on its furniture, with which it can keep competitors at bay and also suppliers and retailers are discouraged to leave the company. Uniqueness of a product is used as a power by companies, which makes its retailers think thrice about quitting selling the brand.
4. Branding management
The culmination of a supplier into the finished product of the buyer who sells to consumers is a smart tactic (Cummins, David and Kawamoto, 2011). For example, Intel Corporation has been married to Microsoft as they both are compatible and both are sold by a laptop manufacturer. This makes them stay together. When one brand has a higher global image, it sells a subsidiary brand together.