美国论文代写-腐败的负面影响。当人们谈论腐败时，他们只关注腐败的负面影响。在某些情况下，腐败促进了社会的积极发展。这使得社会学家和人类学家开始讨论腐败的总体影响。人们就腐败如何也能造福人民展开了广泛的辩论。到目前为止，最具争议的话题是腐败的负面影响是否大于其固有的好处(Svensson, 2005)。具体来说，考虑到腐败和贿赂的成本，商品和服务的成本将会增加(Olken & Pande 2011)。为政府、公务员或高级官员利用手中的权力来窃取政府资源,如建设项目和公共项目,将降低成本,因此,项目应该在一年内完成,花费更少可能会投入更多的资金和更多的时间(Svensson, 2005)。
On the other hand, since corrupt officials have to hide their bribery activities, they may seek other ways of corruption to preserve themselves from being detected, but in which process, the cost for economy will increase (Goudie & Stasavage, 1998). For instance, in order to escape the detection of villagers, officials who assigned to make a 20cm thick road were actually deliver a 15cm thick road instead of raising the total construction price (Olken, 2005). Besides, corruption decreases efficiency by diminishing the capability of external supervision, to take an example, when people who break the law can escape punishment by bribing judges or public officers, laws and regulations become insignificance and meaningless (Olken & Pande 2011).
From analysis of the perspective of the firm, corruption is a major stumbling block for foreign investment. From a practical standpoint firms bribe for the sake of tax evasions, extend tax breaks. In this situation it becomes profitable or causes damage to the economy. Corruptive practices do cause an impact on the economy. The extent of these corruptive practices depends on the independent cases (Economy, 2007). From analysis of the government services offered like issuance of licensing and permit, firms will face an increase in their total cost (Olken & Pande 2011). Further, firms who are surrounded by uncertainties and political risks cannot make decision owing to the increased beaucrative process. This process increases efficiency due to this the time is reduced. Money will be spent for other business activities will extent (Bayley, 1966). There are a number of negative impacts to the societies that are created from this scenario. In such a situation, entrepreneurs will devote themselves to seeking preferential market access, rather than developing productivity (Heineman, & Heimann, 2006). They will assume that they can achieve by the process of corruption. Increased emphasis will be given to following of the corruptive practices rather than developing robust technology. Researchers who try to establish a corruption with slow economic growth also bolster the argument that corruption causes detrimental effects to innovation of a company (Goudie, & Stasavage 1998). It has been found that for new companies they are hindered by excessive governmental regulations. They are not able to grow owing to the corruptive practices of the state. This corruptive practice also thwarts the innovative efforts undertaken by other companies. In the current age, it is imperative to have innovative design practices to sustain. In this scenario individual governmental corruptive practices leads to detriment of these innovative activities.