The end of era of reconstruction and the last two decades of the 19the century had been very significant for the industrial and technological developments in United States. The early landmark for the industrial revolution in America came by the end of the 19th century. This revolution was initiated when new manufacturing technologies were brought by Samuel Slater from Britain (Tindall and Shi 75). He was the person, who founded the first cotton mill of United States in Beverly, Massachusetts. The fast railroad in the mid of 19th century helped the industries and business to grow on fast pace (Donaldson and Hornbeck 802). The mill set up by Slater and many other industries and factories that sprang up in the late 19th century, mainly worked through the power generated by water. The industrial development in United States was mainly marked in the Northeast and it set the stage for the rapid industrial development based on the British innovations (Tindall and Shi 80). Northeast Industrial development facilitated the development of the means of transportations, such as railroads and canals etc. The development of the economy and transportation significantly encouraged the trade and economy.
The main technological innovations in the 19th century were the invention of telegraph by Samuel F. B. Morse, steam boat service firm established on the Hudson River and invention of the sewing machine by Elias Howe before the civil war (Cowan 10). Following the civil war, the industrialization in America had grown rapidly because the American industries were making the consumer goods that were directly sold to the consumers (Buzanand Lawson 623). Some of the common consumer goods made in America were shoes, cloths, flour mills and packed meat. Most of the industries were small and had few workers. The high demand of the consumer goods increased the industrialization process.
Heavy industry grew rapidly, which made products like heavy machineries, engines and iron rails. Therefore, the main reason behind the technological development was the industrialization in America, and on the other hand, industrialization fueled technological development to meet the needs of the consumers. Since technology made transportation easier, the industries and factories could easily increase their market reach and were able to grow their business (Cowan 30). Some of the significant reasons that supported in the industrial development in United States were: (1) large supply of the raw material that were required for making consumer goods and this raw material included lumber, oil, coal, iron and cloths; (2) America was the nation with growing large population, which provided the large number of workers in the factories and large number of consumers to buy consumer products (Cowan 212); (3) technological advancement had led to growth and development of the railroads and river systems, which facilitated the transportation of the raw material and finished goods at low costs (Donaldson and Hornbeck 812); (4) America had large amount of capital to establish new industries and factories; (5) population of America included the large number of educated and skilled people, who were able to make machineries and could conduct manufacturing methods easily and (6) the most significant reason was that Government of America made many significant efforts for development and improvement of American industries.