Community level engagement directly with private real estate players is increasing, as awareness of their rights and entitlements have also grown. Activists work with slum dwellers to make them understand the policy initiatives, their rights, the consequences of disagreements, their liability of municipal taxes, etc. This has raised the expectations of slum dwellers. Policy initiatives are aptly prepared looking the next 25 years in mind, and this has upgraded the slum development policy in Mumbai. Due to economic advantage owing to significant tax revenue collection from Mumbai’s businesses, it is able to accumulate substantial reserves for welfare programs and upgrading slums, but not enough for the increasing influx of domestic migration.
Slum upgrade has been awarded a much deliberated community involvement, NGO engagement and takeover and lesser monitoring by the government. There are cases in India where community led slum upgrading have been successful, for example in Ahmedabad, but Das and Takahashi (2009) concluded that the potential of a slum redevelopment project could do much more without the NGO leadership. This is because of the weak execution capabilities and suspicious nature as a fundamental character trait of NGO’s. However, with the SRA authority and slum redevelopment policy, Mumbai has seen a boom in real estate which in no other terms could have been realised. Nevertheless, the likelihood of the incessant nature of slum resurgence remains high, denting the hope of government to ever be able to meet the demands of endless urbanization.
Owing to real estate prices reaching unprecedented levels, there is often seen a fierce competition between real estate developers to bag slum projects which can fetch them unheard-of profits (Mukhija, 2001). Such competition often ends up in the deal getting dirty, which involving hefty bribed to slum redevelopment committee and government officials. This further creates huge obstacles in slum redevelopment allotment to developers. Another challenge remains identifying slum dwellers that have become masters of mischief and engaged repetitive buying slum properties and regained slum redevelopment rewards. In addition, providing sanitation facilities and clean water to all slum dwellers remains difficult, as Mumbai’s water infrastructure is partly unchanged since the British era occupation. Proper sanitation technology could reduce avoidable deaths and illness of slum dwellers (Katukiza et al., 2012). Amis & Kumar (2000) have argued that slum living conditions are increasingly challenging in terms of incurring basic family expenditures, the psychological impact on slum dwellers is exorbitant, further affecting the provincial government’s healthcare burden.