对文献的批判性评论强调，饮食障碍可能出现在生命的任何阶段，但它更有可能出现在个体的青少年到青年成年阶段，无论其性别(Lavagnino et al.， 2016)。研究发现，饮食失调与抑郁症、焦虑症和药物滥用等其他疾病密切相关。
对饮食失调潜在原因的文献的深入分析表明，虽然不可能找到精确的具体因素，但心理、生物和环境因素的结合导致了饮食失调的发展(Mehler和Brown, 2015)。研究发现，生物学原因包括营养缺乏、激素紊乱和遗传或遗传性饮食障碍(Lock and Le Grange, 2015)。心理原因与自我感知有关(Rohde et al.， 2015)。研究发现，自卑和消极的身体形象会使个体在极端程度上停止或开始进食，从而导致进食障碍的出现。
研究进一步表明，由于需要减肥或增重，家庭功能失调的本质会导致饮食障碍的出现(Sahoo et al.， 2015)。此外，在很多职业中，如模特、芭蕾舞和演员，将体重减到极致成为个人的职业要求(Brownell和Walsh, 2017)。关于饮食失调原因的文献进一步表明，不仅是需要瘦人身材的职业导致了特定行业专业人员的饮食失调，而且也有美学运动强调运动员需要达到瘦人身材以达到最佳表现(Westmoreland等人，2016)。因此，长跑、体操、跳水、划船、瑜伽等运动项目的运动员都需要保持审美上的苗条身材，以符合行业的期望。
因此，从对饮食障碍背后原因的批判性分析中发现，饮食障碍的广泛的生物、心理、环境、职业和家庭相关因素导致了饮食障碍，这些因素在亲密社会成员的批评基础上指导了饮食障碍的性质，如极端体重减轻或极端体重增加(Lavagnino et al.， 2016)。在引起或帮助饮食失调方面可以影响个人的社会成员包括教育工作者、朋友、同事和家庭成员。因此，社会对个人体形或体重的批评结合在一起，导致了饮食障碍的出现。
Eating disorders are often described by the researchers as illnesses which are characterized by the irregularities in the eating habits and behaviour of the individual accompanied with the severe concern about the shape or weight of body (Brownell and Walsh, 2017). It becomes essential to consider for this essay that eating disorders can range from inadequate to excessive consumption of food which negatively impacts the wellbeing of an individual in both cases. The eating disorders can range from Anorexia and Bulimia to Binge Eating Disorder (Culbert et al., 2015). Therefore, the thesis statement of this essay lies in analysing the potential causes and effects of the eating disorders on the eating behaviours of a person.
The critical review of literature highlighted that the eating disorders can emerge at any point of life but it is more likely to emerge in the teen to young adulthood life stage of the individuals regardless of their genders (Lavagnino et al., 2016). The research has identified that the eating disorders are critically linked with the other conditions such as depression, anxiety disorders and substance abuse.
The in-depth analysis of the literature on the potential causes of eating disorders has indicated that while the pinpoint specific factors are not possible, the combination of psychological, biological and environmental factors result in the development of eating disorders (Mehler and Brown, 2015). It was found that the biological causes range from the nutritional deficiencies, irregularities in the hormones and genetic or hereditary eating disorders (Lock and Le Grange, 2015). The psychological causes are linked with the self-perception (Rohde et al., 2015). It is found that poor self-esteem and negative body image can make the individuals to either stop or start eating at extreme levels which result in the eating disorders to emerge.
The research has further indicated that the dysfunctional nature of the family can cause the eating disorders to emerge due to the need to either weight loss or gain (Sahoo et al., 2015). Furthermore, there is wide range of professions such as modelling, ballet and acting wherein losing weight to the extreme levels becomes a career requirement for the individual (Brownell and Walsh, 2017). The literature on the causes of eating disorders has further informed that not only professions that need people with lean body causes the eating disorders among the professionals of the given industry but also there are aesthetic sports which place emphasis on the need to achieve lean body for athlete to achieve optimal performance (Westmoreland et al., 2016). Therefore, the athletes involved in the long distance running, gymnastics, diving, rowing and yoga are required to maintain aesthetically lean body in order to comply with the industry expectations.
Moreover, the history of severe trauma, childhood physical and sexual abuse along with domestic violence has contributed to the emergence of eating disorders among the individuals during either childhood or young adulthood stage of life (Culbert et al., 2015). The research further suggested that stress and peer pressure from the co-workers and friends towards the body image of an individual contributes as a cause behind eating disorders.
Therefore, it has been identified from the critical analysis of the causes behind eating disorders that the wide range of biological, psychological, environment, career and family related factors causes the eating disorders which direct the nature of the eating disorder such as extreme weight loss or extreme weight gain on the basis of the criticism given by the close social members (Lavagnino et al., 2016). The members of society that can influence individual in terms of causing or assisting with eating disorders comprise of educators, friends, co-workers and family members. Hence, combination of the criticism about body shape or weight received by an individual from society causes the eating disorders to emerge.