它被定义为“独立解决问题所确定的实际发展水平与在成人指导下或与更有能力的同龄人合作解决问题所确定的潜在发展水平之间的距离”(Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86)。与同龄人和更多的互动将帮助学生更好地发展。一个已经处于最近发展区的学生只需要一个动力来完成任务。这也是脚手架这个术语的诞生。学生完成任务首先需要脚手架，脚手架可以由老师或同学以指导的形式给出，一旦确定学生能够成功完成任务，就可以拆除脚手架。支架式学习是一种引导学习的形式，在这种学习中，那些不属于学生能力范围的学习要素通常会被学生所关注，这样他们就可以在同样的环境中提高自己的能力(Wood et al .， 1976, p. 90)。
Now according to Vygotsky’s theory of development, the socialization of the individual will affect how they learn. Learning is explained as a process affected by socialization. There is a conscious awareness in the child to socialize by communicating (Vygotsky, 1978). Now there is a guided setting provided for students to work as a group where they would focus on their task and at the same time would also socialize. The case scenario shows that students learn as groups for studying various topics in the outside environment. Lessons were conducted partially in the class room environment and then in the outside environment. While there is some form of restricted socializing as students carry out their activities as a group, the only free time that students get to actively engage in what they want to and socialize as they will be the recess time. However, Ann instead of understanding that this time is valuable seems to have engaged a substantial amount of children to focus on outside activities as a continuation of their daily learning. Lev Vygotsky’s theory focuses on a concept called as the zone of proximal development.
It is defined as “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86). Interaction with peers and more will help student to develop better. A student who is already in their zone of proximal development just needs a boost to complete the task. This was also the birth of the term called scaffolding. A student will need a scaffold initially to complete the task, the scaffolding could be given in the form of guidance by the teacher or the peer and once it has been identified that the student is able to successfully complete the task then the scaffolding can be removed. Scaffolding is a form of guided learning where those elements of learning that is not in student’s capacity are usually brought to the focus of the student so that they can improve competence in the same (Wood et al, 1976, p. 90).