Staged in the year 1902 “Cathleen Ni Houlihan” of William Butler Yeats showed his strong resentment towards the handicapped nature of Ireland that crippled the country living under English dominion.The play can be considered as a personification of Ireland depicting the old woman as the state of the country and her turning into a beautiful lady at the end of revolution showed the rise of Ireland. The protagonist Michael who was on the verge of marrying his love Delia decided to change his course and join for a bloodbath to lead the country out of clutches from foreign control. The sketch of martyrdom that is clearly visible in this work reflected the failure of a revolution as a triumph.
“Cathleen Ni Houlihan” stemmed from Yeats’s nationalistic fervour and was written on the basis of a dream as he mentioned “I had a very vivid dream one night, and I made Cathleen Ni Houlihan out of this dream”. The play was written in association with Lady Gregory who was well aware with the thoughts of Irish peasants and the rural structure.