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美国论文代写-信用评级在金融市场监管中的作用

美国论文代写-信用评级在金融市场监管中的作用。信用评级行为在金融市场监管中起着至关重要的作用,对于欧盟下的风险覆盖,以金融为基础的组织应该理解维持最小资本范围的需要。这种操作可以缓冲意外损失,甚至保护储户。此外,这些障碍在稳定金融体系方面发挥着至关重要的作用。信用评级机构应努力发表意见,协助减少信息不对称。必须披露发行人不断变化的融资状况,否则他们最终可能会误导市场参与者。在应对金融危机期间信用评级机构所发挥的作用时,IOSCO成功地加强了《行为准则》基本原则下的每一项原则(Dardour, 2013)。众所周知,证券交易委员会将指定国家认可的统计评级机构。接下来论文范文美国论文代写-信用评级在金融市场监管中的作用分享给留学生阅读。

actions of credit ratings play a crucial role in the regulation of financial market. For the coverage of risk under European Unions, finance based organizations should understand the need of maintaining minimum scope of the capital. This conducts operations as buffering losses unexpected and even protecting depositors. Also, these barriers play a crucial role in stabilizing the financial system. Under the framework of Basel II, banks can be successful in computing requirements of capital by the use of credit rating under approved agencies of credit rating (Dufour et al., 2012). Also, if finance based institution consider borrowing from central bank, and then there is a requirement of adequate assets by central banks with minimum rating for collateralizing. A code of conduct was published by the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) in the year 2004 and all major agencies of credit rating signed this. Agencies of credit rating should put in efforts of delivering opinions that assisting in decreasing the asymmetry information. Changing condition of finance over the issuer has to be revealed, since otherwise they may end up misleading the participants of market. In reacting to the role played by agencies of credit rating during the event of financial crisis, the IOSCO had been successful in strengthening each and every principle under the fundamentals of the Code of Conduct (Dardour, 2013). The Commission of Securities and Exchange are known to be assigning the Statistical Rating Organizations of National Recognition. For estimating the required value of capital of finance based institutions, they utilize each and every rating of NRSRO. As a significant example, some of the investors of mutual funds and pension funds at times are only allowed for investing in debt rated by investment grade. As a matter of fact, these types of volatility end up exacerbating the scope of financial instability along with its unpredictability, as high levels of volatility are in association with the perspective of market participants on higher risk (Creighton et al., 2007). In addition, this increment in perceived risk and volatility appears to be having similarly unwarranted impacts with respect to uncertainty of macroeconomic factors by the amplification of volatility in output.

论文范文美国论文代写-信用评级在金融市场监管中的作用就为留学生分享到这里。中国留学生英语论文不会写,可以找美国论文代写Advanced Thesis平台机构解决论文写作难题,保证论文原创,为留学生提供report代写、essay代写、assignment代写等论文服务,并使用与美国各大高校同样权威的抄袭检测系统,让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

 

論文代寫-室內管理規則IMR

論文代寫-室內管理規則IMR。推定通知原則的存在是為了讓外人檢查公司的文件。那些將要與該公司合作或與他們一起工作的人將能夠檢查這些文件,然後根據這些發現做出決定。這樣,任何與公司合作的公司外部人員都將了解公司董事的權利形式,並意識到這一點。但是,在某些情況下,有些外人對內部程序一無所知,因此不能說他們是否遵守了這些程序。室內管理規則IMR正是為此目的而制定的。對室內管理規則的首次應用理解是在英國皇家銀行訴Turquand案中。在本案中,法院首先允許外部人士對該公司是否遵守了必要的規則和法律做出假設。根據IMR,外部人士與公司的交易通常是出於善意。在這裏,沒有必要讓任何局外人注意到或有一些合理的理由來預測公司內部工作的不規范或不當。接下來論文范文論文代寫-室內管理規則IMR分享給留學生閱讀。

The Doctrine of Constructive Notice existed to allow outsiders to inspect the documents of companies. People who were going to partner with the company or work with them would be able to examine the documents, and then based on the findings make their decision. This way any outsider of the company who work with a company will know the form of rights of the Directors of the company and are aware of it. However, in some cases, there were outsiders who did not have any knowledge about the internal procedures, and hence could not say if they were complied with. The indoor management rule IMR was established precisely for this purpose. The first application understanding of the Indoor Management Rule was in the case of the Royal British Bank v. Turquand. It was in this case, the Court first allowed for outsiders to make assumptions on whether the company has complied with needed rules and legislations. In this case, the company directors have given a banker guarantee for borrowing which did not fall under the usual rules for shareholder. Using the absence of shareholder approval as a reason, the company wanted to avoid payment. The court rejected this assumption and found the company to have understood such transactions to be authorized. The basis and the need for understanding company working is what hence led to the Indoor Management Rule. Under the IMR, the outsiders who are associating with the company will be able to make some reasonable assumptions on the regular working of the company. The outsiders would be able to decide whether the company working is consistent or reliable as per their needs. Internal consistency of decisions can be evaluated by the outsider. In order for indoor management rules to be understood properly, it is necessary to understand how the common law, inquiry exception is also applied.

Primarily, the rule is applicable in such areas, where there are some procedural conditions to be fulfilled with respect to the company’s board of directors wanting to give an agent some actual authority. Directors must be properly appointed, and must have convened proper board meetings as well. The board members must be well informed, and the quorum should exist for the directors to make a decision. Now, a bona fide outsider would be allowed to expect these conditions to be implemented in order to be assured of regularity in working. Under the IMR, outsider deals with the company usually happens on good faith. Here, there is no need for any outsider to notice or have some reasonable grounds to anticipate irregularity or impropriety in the company’s internal working.

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洛杉矶论文代写-现代投资组合理论

洛杉矶论文代写-现代投资组合理论。1952年,哈里•马科维茨(Harry Markowitz)在《投资组合选择》(Portfolio Selection)一文中发展并提出了现代投资组合理论(Modern Portfolio Theory, MPT)。MPT理论被认为是金融和投资领域最具影响力的经济理论之一。现代投资组合理论也被称为均值方差分析。该理论的基础是基于在特定风险水平下预期收益最大化的投资组合资产。数学框架中的风险称为方差。该理论认为,资产的回报和风险不是自我评估的,而是基于整个投资组合的总体风险和回报的贡献。

The theory is developed with the goal of fabricating a portfolio that is desired to maximize the expected returns which are consistent with the acceptable risk level. In this regards, Markowitz intended to measure and quantify the investment risk by the assessment of the variance of the return of an asset. Based on the MPT, two types of risks for individual stock returns have been identified. The systematic risks which are the market risk such as recessions, interest rate shocks and wars are not easily diversified (Pfiffelmann, Roger and Bourachnikova, 2016). The unsystematic risks are the specific risk as it is specific to individual stocks. The unsystematic risk for individual stocks can be easily diversified by increasing the number of stocks in the portfolio. The key elements of the MPT proposed by Markowitz (1952) are explained below.
Investors or the portfolio managers engage in the decision-making process based on the expected returns and the variance of the returns. The historical mean of the returns from an asset over a given time period derives the expected return from an asset. It must be noted that the terms mean and expected returns are interchangeable (Pok and Poshakwale, 2004).
The theory justifies that the portfolio selection is not based on the risk associated with the individual securities. The risk involved in the portfolio selection is based on the portfolio risk. The theory encompasses the combination of risky assets and expected returns from a portfolio which reflects relatively low risk. Conversely, it can be stated that it is quite possible to develop a portfolio with lower risk as compared to the sum of its counterparts.
The portfolio managers are alarmingly learning the key components of the MPT in order to manage risk and maximize its return. The main of this theory is that it ensures that the portfolio managers are able to derive the greatest potential return coupled with least risk. A portfolio manager through this theory is able to measure the relationship between the numerous types of investments (Shipway, 2009). In this way, the portfolio managers are able to compare and contrast between the risks and returns of the portfolio assets and investments which would help them to reduce risk and sustain maximum returns. MPT is regarded as a financial self-defense for the portfolio managers in which diversification is the way to smooth out the rough edges of the returns on investment. The basic idea of the MPT is based on the efficient portfolio which represents the investment opportunity set based on expected portfolio return and portfolio risk. This is presented below.

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论文代写-企业协议的订立

论文代写-企业协议的订立。为满足公平劳动委员会的条件,由职工与用人单位签订企业协议。企业协议允许花费时间和精力来设置一些必须解决的层次结构问题。它不是一个完美的系统。然而,双方会对一些明确的利益进行比较。在这个系统中,人们将从这个模式中受益。从企业协议的优点和局限性可以看出,企业协议并不完善。然而,在这种情况下,好处超过了限制。这是一种动态的情况,将来可能会发生变化。到目前为止,这对企业协议的制定有关各方都是有益的。坚持这种模式对相关各方都是有益的。必须考虑到若干重要因素,以便使其成为法定任务。在分析中讨论了它们。利大于弊。由此可见,遵循公平劳动佣金企业协议对公司来说是比较容易的。

Whenever an enterprise agreement is made, it is mandatory to have a consultation term. The Enterprise agreements are lodged with the Fair Work Commission. A clause must be included in model consultation term. This term is set out within the Fair Work Regulations 2009. The consultation must require the employees to be consulted about major changes in the workplace. This holds true if they have significant impact on the employees. In these cases, the parties involved can have representation of the employees. This is imperative.
If the company decides to terminate the employees, the employers must consult the union in cases of the dismissal of certain special circumstances. The consultation must be done within the union where the members are impacted. In cases where 15 or more employees are to be dismissed, the company must present clear evidence of economic, technological or similar reasons. It is important to ensure that they are adhered even in cases where the relevant union does not act (Forsyth and Stewart, 2009). The Fair Work Commission act sets out to ensure that the worker rights are protected in this case.
The consultation is required when the employees meet with significant changes, the method of consultation and the arriving of the final decision by the company.
This consultation of the business needs or priorities can be done by using mixed official communications. The use of team meetings, newsletters, emails is valid forms. Different efforts can be made to secure the opinion of the different employees. A consensus must be reached with the consultants. Based on this, the companies can ensure that they have consultation. The next important requirement for consultation is to ensure the occupational health and safety of the people
The employers need to be aware of the additional consultation duties with the employees regarding their health and welfare. The Fair Work commission mandates that good faith efforts must be created for the context of the negotiating terms of the enterprise agreement. The employees would require certain flexibility (Forsyth and Stewart, 2009).
In summary, the employers need to have consultation in cases of significant changes to the employees work conditions such as pay or working hours. In case of dismissal of more than 15 employees, occupational safety and individual flexibility arrangements. The context of good faith efforts and adhering to the important good faith efforts are mandatory in these cases. These consultations must be in accordance with the Fair Work act of 2009, modern award and the company polices. It is also important to ensure that there is consultation for enterprise agreement that is drawn between the employees. This can be done to ensure that there are state or territorial occupational health issues.

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代写价格-供应商的议价能力分析

代写价格-供应商的议价能力分析。供应商的议价能力很强。供应商或初级生产者已经与零售商和分销商达成了良好的协议。他们需要尝试一个新的业务模型,而这个机会可能会降低他们的流程效率。这是一种较新的商业模式,它的目标是由于这样高的利润率而获得更多的利润。有许多公司正在开发替代的健康理念。因此,替代品的威胁很高。除此之外,新进入者或新进入者对产品的威胁也达到了要求。

The competitive rivalry or the competition is found to be high in this sector. Broad Bean Organic grocer, Whole foods and Marketto are the main competitors in this area. The company essentially needs to compete with these companies. However, these are retail companies and this business model is simply a portal to make the sales of the product to the buyer. Given the proclivity towards developing of local farmers. There are many famer’s markets that operate in this area.
This factor gives the buyer more leverage in this process. The bargaining power of the buyer or the customer is considered to be a strong force. There are a number of options for the buyer to meet the demands of the consumers. These are found to be higher for the company (Schaper, 2016).
The bargaining power of the suppliers is high. The supplier or the primary producers already have good deals with the retailer and distributors. They need to take a chance with a newer business model and this chance can cost their process efficiency. This is a newer business model that is aimed to gain more profit margin owing to this high. There are a number of companies that are developing alternative health ideas. Hence the threat of substitution is high. Added to this, the threat of newer entrants or new entry into the product to meet the requirements.
A similar notion that is considered is the rise of the food delivery apps. These can be very strong competitors. The food business is considered to be multibillion-dollar industry. The rise in the food delivery apps are skyrocketing. There are more than 130 cuisines that are now ordered and some haute cuisine that are introduced in the markets. The impact of the apps such as Deliveroo, Menulog and foodora. These are found to be app-based food deliveries. The restaurant menus and the rise in the online fast food are giving the consumers a choice about the food cuisine and the convenience of the online food delivery options has changed in the current time. The app that is proposed in this schema is the food that must be cooked and it is based on fresh produce. The rise in these apps and the food delivery restaurnet are found to be worth around $16.4 billion. For the consumers who watch the programs such as MasterChef. The people like to deliver the greater choice. These food delivery apps that are found to be in the rise. The rise of the apps such as Menulog will be the biggest contender. These apps are found to have more than 7000 food outlets and deliver more than 130 cuisines to the people. This essentially changes the demography who wants to cook. Added to this, the company such as UberEats has combined the ride-sharing service with food delivery option. These are found to be concentrated only on the Melbourne residences.
There is higher level of competition in this sector. To launch this product, there must be unique and innovative marketing campaign. The only way to achieve this is to focus on the importance of health and development of the local farmers. The emotion that will be used to make the sales to the people is the development of the sustainability. These would essentially cause the companies to face the growth.

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论文代写-债务融资的讨论分析

论文代写-债务融资的讨论分析。有时企业可能需要长期资金,但可能不想发行股本,因为公司可能不想进一步稀释对公司的所有权。使债务融资成为更好选择的其他原因包括成本更低和更容易获得,特别是在公司现有债务融资很少或没有的情况下。债务融资的一个主要优势是,它为公司的债权人提供利息支付的税收减免。

Sometimes businesses may require long-term funds, but may not want to issue equity capital, as the company may not want to further dilute the ownership in the company. Other reasons making debt finance a better option include lesser cost and easier availability, particularly if the company has little or no existing debt finance. A major advantage of debt finance is that it provides tax relief on interest payments to the debtholders of the company (BPP Learning Media Ltd., 2013, p. 229).
If a company wants to raise debt finance by the issue of corporate bonds, it must decide whether the bonds will be redeemable or not and whether there will be any conversion rights of those bonds into equity shares of the company. Bonds are long-term debt capital raised by a company for which interest is paid at a fixed rate. Corporate bonds can be sold on the open market to institutional or individual investors, and they can even be placed privately.
Advantages of corporate bonds:
Bonds are a flexible way of raising debt capital, as they can be sold off completely if needed or converted to equity shares. They do no not dilute the value of existing shareholdings – unlike issuing additional shares. They also enable more cash to be retained in the business – as the redemption date for the corporate bonds can be several years after their issue date.
Disadvantage of corporate bonds:
Even though corporate bonds seem to have many unparalleled advantages, there are some disadvantages in issuing these bonds as well, like:
Regular interest payments to holders of these bonds have to be made regardless of the profit or loss of the company during the year.
Gearing levels may be increased by issuing bonds and a time may come when the corporate bonds have increased the gearing level and in turn the financial risk of the company to an unacceptable level (www.nibusinessinfo.co.uk, n.d.).
Recommendations for MTT to improve its chances of obtaining alternate sources of funding:
Midas Touch Technologies could raise finance from either debentures, bonds or equity shares by getting itself listed on a stock exchange. That would give it proper access to the capital markets. Moreover, by having its previous annual accounts audited and published as soon as it goes public will increase the chances of investors reading its annual accounts and wishing to invest in the company.

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代写essay-CFF支持禁止动物实验的认证

代写essay-CFF支持禁止动物实验的认证。CFF根据严格的认证标准发布了澳大利亚无虐待动物名单,这些公司已经禁止对其产品进行动物测试。消费者仔细阅读这些名单,以了解那些选择仁慈而不是残忍对待无辜动物的公司。这份名单中的公司在支持禁止动物实验的社会责任公司的认知方面受到高度重视。自由选择残忍组织(CCF)也对完全禁止动物实验的公司进行认证,并在严格的认证标准下发布了澳大利亚的自由选择残忍名单。CCF遵循严格的指导方针,对不支持动物试验、动物皮肤销售或其他虐待动物行为的公司给予CCF认证。

The important strategic role done by CCF is to generate funds from the public to keep the cause of the campaign alive. The fund generation is done by many ways like public donations, sale of CCF merchandise, making a bequest, joining paid memberships, etc(CCF Merchandise, 2016).

The campaign calendar of CCF is full of various events such as incorporate public participation, awareness campaigns, advertisements, postcard, merchandise sale, etc. Some of the upcoming events with a CCF stall are on Sunday 2 October 2016 at World Animal Day in Edgar’s Mission, Sunday 23 October 2016 at World Vegan Day in Melbourne and on Sunday 30 October 2016 at Cruelty Free Festival, Sydney (Choose Cruelty Free, 2016). The purpose of such campaign stalls is that the people visiting them would get a chance to interact with the friendly team of the CCF stall. The CCF aims to sell its merchandise and distribute free information brochures which detail the cause and objectives of the organisation. This would create general awareness as well as interest of the people in the causes that CCF supports. By the sale of CCF merchandise organisation aims to raise some fund to continue its fight against cruelty on innocent animals. The campaign calendar of CCF is therefore well planned throughout the year and the details of events and promotional campaigns are available on the website of CFF “choosecrueltyfree.org.au”.

The Choose Cruelty Free (CCF) gives accreditations to the companies which are completely prohibiting animal testing and release its Australian cruelty-free list under strict criteria of certification. The CCF follows strict guidelines to give CCF accreditations to the companies which do not support animal testing, sale of animal skins or other cruelty on animals. This process of accreditation at CCF is very strict. CCF gives much value and effort in its process of giving accreditation to the companies. The strict inclusion criteria for companies in the cruelty-free companies’ list of Australia is said to be toughest around the world. It not only examines the procedures and operations of the company which has requested for accreditation but also evaluate the company’s parent as well as subsidiary companies for animal testing. Accreditation involves signing of legal agreement with CCF to ban any sort of animal testing in the production of goods within the company. The companies which successfully gain the accreditation are included in the Australian cruelty-free list as the companies which have banned animal testing on their products. The consumers peruse these lists to gain insight about the companies which has chosen mercy over cruelty towards innocent animals.

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論文代寫-埃博拉病毒和艾滋病的影響

論文代寫-埃博拉病毒和艾滋病的影響。埃博拉病毒和艾滋病是影響各國社會生活和經濟增長的兩種主要病毒。隨著病毒在各國迅速傳播,缺乏醫療援助和人員傷亡使情況更加惡化。特別是在欠發達國家和非洲等發展中國家,疫情的蔓延感染了社區內的大量人群,疾病的影響仍在繼續。本文分析了這些病毒(艾滋病和埃博拉)的結果,並強調了經濟學家在分析這些國家時的重要性。

The infographic shows that killing the victims and affecting the immune system are the key similarities in the functioning of these deadly viruses in the human body. Taking West Africa into consideration, this region has topped in the number of Ebola victims and over 4000 victims have died because of this virus. While AIDS can be detected in just months or even years, Ebola virus is known to have an incubation period of 2-21 days. The symptoms are very much visible within 8-10 days (Hello, 2016). The only difference in the longevity of virus in the human body is as follows.
Ebola kills about 70% of victims within few days of infection. On the other hand, AIDS takes years and at times, few months to kill the victims.
The differences in outcomes are evaluated in terms of economic impacts. Sub Saharan Africa region is taken for the cases of Ebola and AIDS.
The figure clearly indicates that the impact on GDP is high in Tanzania when compared to Zambia and Zimbabwe. The reason is that the number of victims exists in these regions. Tanzania records the highest number of AIDS victims in 2010 which is the reason for its negative impact in GDP of the country (Hello, 2016).

Three core countries – Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone are taken for the study. High Ebola is observed in Sierra Leone region and about $439 million is lost. This affected its GDP on a longer run. On the other hand, low Ebola in 2015 created greater effects in GDP in Liberia. The image highlights the millions of dollars that have been lost in terms of GDP of a country.
From both the charts, it is evident that the viruses have affected GDP and led to loss of victims. This widely created an increase in unemployment rate and high costs for healthcare. Despite the social mobilization and immediate emergency responses activated by the governments, these viruses shook the leaders of affected countries for instant solution which was impossible. World Health Organization (WHO) reports that there are about 1,000,000 deaths every year because of HIV/ AIDS and soon after the epidemics of Ebola, the number of death is growing from 20,000 which imply huge losses to the countries.

Throughout this report, it is noted that AIDS and Ebola viruses have not received sufficient medical support and educational assistance which is the reason for continuous outbreak and loss in GDP. With economists support, it is feasible to prepare better budgeting and forecasting systems for the affected countries. As already stated, prevention of these viruses is better than cure so that it creates awareness among people. Eventually, it is important to tackle these diseases in the future with better technologies, widespread support from United Nations (UN) and WHO.

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芝加哥论文代写-Myer ltd商业组织的资本结构

芝加哥论文代写-Myer ltd商业组织的资本结构。Myer是一家从事时尚业务的澳大利亚集团,一直被认为是澳大利亚最顶级的零售或百货商店之一。在2013年,Myer实现了31亿澳元的销售额,成为澳大利亚时尚界的标杆。Myer在澳大利亚和不同行业拥有67家门店。本报告选择Myer ltd作为讨论资本结构和投资资金来源的对象。商业组织的资本结构包括用于购买资产(流动资产和非流动资产)的债务和股本。本报告对Myer ltd近5年的资本结构进行了分析,并进行了同行评审。发行股票、发行债券、留存收益和长期债券是Myer有限公司业务扩展的一些资金来源。

This report is based on financial decisions that business organisation has to make during business operations and this decision can be of business expansion, divestment or other management decisions. For this report Myer Ltd has been selected for the analysis. Myer is in Australian market since 100 years or more and therefore operating in fashion industry. Myer ltd operates in retail industry of Australia. This report discusses about capital structure and financial leverage that capital structure measures from its two major components debt and equity. In this report, peer review has been undertaken between Myer, Woolworth and Wesfarmers operating under same industry. Optimum sources of finance has been analysed and selected for the business expansion of Myer.
Each and every organisation shall maintain optimum capital structure so that they are able to manage fund. Financial leverage of every organisation plays an important role in analysing optimum capital structure of the business organisation. Optimum level of debt and equity shall be maintained in business organisation so that better management of funds is possible. Retained earnings and debentures are two most effective sources of finance that can be used to back business expansion.

Trend analysis enables investor or reader to analyse what trend a company has in terms of performance of some specific points. From the above table, it can be analysed that Myer has stable capital structure in terms of outside liabilities and its equity funds. Although there are fluctuation in its financial leverage, it is because of change in level of equity. Myer has safe capital structure as they are using more equity funds (inside funds) to back or purchase assets from last five years. Low financial leverage shows that company has utilised less funds from outside market as compared to its capacity and the same is the case with Myer (Annual Report, 2015). Myer ltd has retained profits that show they can use these funds in expanding business operations.

Peer review is the activity under which one company is reviewed with its competitors of the same industry and review is on some basis. In the present case of Myer, Woolworth ltd and Wesfarmers ltd has been selected for conduced peer review. Both companies have established market and share common resources. The above table shows the comparison of three companies on the basis of their financial leverage during last five years of period. It can be analysed that Woolworth has most aggressive capital structure as compared to other two because they had fully utilised outside debt and exposed to more financial risk. On the other hand, Myer has low financial risk as they rely more on internal funds. Wesfarmers ltd has optimum level of capital structure as their financial leverage shows optimum level of debt and equity in its capital structure.
Decision- For the purpose of business expansion, combination of retained earnings and debentures shall be used by the Myer. As Myer is financially leveraged company that means having less debt, therefore, issuing debentures maintain optimum level of debt to equity ratio. On the other hand, to curb financial cost burden 35 % or AUD 35 million shall be used from retained earnings.

From the above report, it can be concluded that financial matters of the business organisation shall be maintained effectively. Financial management of business organisation includes maintaining optimum level of capital structure and management of sources of finance. In this case of Myer ltd, they have lower utilisation of debt as their financial leverage is at lower side. As compared to its peers, Myer ltd is relatively less levered organisation in which internal or equity funds are more utilised. On the other hand, for the purpose of investing for business expansion, hybrid option of retained earnings and issue of debentures can be more effective.

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论文代写-购物中心的建设分析

论文代写-购物中心的建设分析。各地的增长趋势导致了购物中心的建设,这样所有需要的东西都可以买不到一个屋顶。同样,Fairview购物中心是由加拿大多伦多的当地人建造的,而Don Mills的商店位于纽约北部。这两个地方在文化、地理位置和人口方面都不同。本文的重点是比较这两家商场的地点、位置、位置、营销策略、布局与设计、店铺类型、网站审核和实地调查。

CF Fairview Mall highlights a dynamic mix of popular, brand name and specialty retail in one convenient, easily accessible location. Showcasing a collection of over 160 stores and services, premium, casual restaurants and cinemas, CF Fairview Mall is the destination for all shopping and entertaining needs.
CF Shops at Don Mills is where fashion, dining and entertainment come outside to play. This is Ontario’s first and finest open air center with exceptional shops, restaurants and services surrounding a lovely Town Square.
This report will discuss the related to the various activities and options at the places where these two malls are built.

Types of Stores
The Shops at Don Mills has total No. of stores and services 72 and Total retail floor area is 511,824 square feet (48,000 m²).
Fairview Mall was opened in 1970, and the centre has over 170 stores and services, including The Bay, Sears Canada, offices and a cinema complex. There are 170 no. of stores and services and no. of anchor tenants are 3 and the total retail floor area is 881,287 ft² (81,874 m²) with No. of floors as 2 (retail levels, plus 1 office and cinema level).

The website has become the most important factors in attracting new consumers in the city. In addition, the website provides the all information about the mall. The websites are built with view of the products and services available at the Mall.
Fig: Fairview Mall Website
In case of Shops at Don Mills, the website is built with mall services, offers, and with internal designs showing on the front page. The same design is followed for Fairview Mall, but the content of the website is changed as per the products available in the mall.

As per in-depth examination, it is found that both the websites are made with nice design and look that will attract the customers to browse more. All the information is available on the first page itself. The biggest problem is that these websites are not available on the mobile phone with the available products to buy online. In the current technology enabled world, the consumers do more searches and buy on the mobile phone, and hence, this is the biggest problem for these malls to reach more millennial consumers.

The malls are important part of life these days, and hence, their influences cannot be ignored among the people living in the city. The above analysis indicates that both the malls are located at the great location in Toronto. The designs and specifications are as per the demand in that specific city in keeping mind the technological, social, cultural and behavioral impact on the people in the city for long term. The green roof environment and ecological environment are taken into consideration while designing and constructing the malls.
Both the malls have good number of stores for various products of different brands. The marketing strategies are planned as well as per the consumer behavior in that local area.

The analysis above indicates that both malls are constructed with different geographic need and also as per the available location. New available technological options are chosen in keeping mind the long-term results and surrounding environment. The geographical attributes played an important role in these two malls. The malls have their own specific strategies in terms of location, place, population and consumer behavior. Based on both the Malls analysis, it is concluded that geographies are different and hence their products and services are different as well.

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