In the case of the Eiffel, which was built in 1999, the material steel construction and its form of use was an innovative attempt at that time. The tower as with other industrialized structures came under criticism because it was said to have no utility value in itself. The tower was termed by some as being mercantile. The Eiffel was built in France that had numerous heritage and artistic architectures and in this context the Eiffel was even looked at as a “gigantic factory chimney” (Eiffel Tower, 2006). The tower with its material use of steel was however, seen to create an innovation in the way it addressed bearing loads. Its architectural strength was to be tested by winds, and at such a height the architect was to ensure that the right balancing of loads and scale was done so as to make the tower resistant to the forces of wind, this innovation was supposed to give it that necessary cultural or aesthetic space that the people chided it as lacking, “There is an attraction and a charm inherent in the colossal that is not subject to ordinary theories of art” (Billington, 1985, p.62). The tower as such is employs three main factors that was more useful for the future constructions than that of the architectures of the revivalist forms. Primarily the tower construction showed how it was possible to contain the scale of construction. Secondly a narrowly defined use was derived with the use of applied science and arts and the Eiffel embodies this, thirdly it broke through the established aesthetic ideals of the people and taught them to look at newer things.
The Industrial revolution in short was a period where change was evoked in many things. Where the revivalist architectural forms attempted to bring back a sense of the past with the use of existing elements, the industrial revolution changed the ways the very materials were used for construction (Encyclopedia of Art History, 2014). Building materials that were commonly used before the nineteenth century and also in revival architectures were usually timber, stone, lime mortars and others. However these materials offered only restricted course of actions, metals furthermore were not mass produced before the nineteenth century. Structures were hence very limited. With the mass production agenda, steel works were available in plenty.