领导者引导、激励和激励，但不控制。研究人员亚伯拉罕·扎勒兹尼克(Abraham Zaleznik)写了领导者和管理者的区别。在他的文章中，他介绍了一个组织将如何需要有效的管理者和领导者，但他们对组织的贡献是相当不同的(Zaleznik, 2004)。领导人促进改变。他们根据行业变化提出了新的工作方法。他们理解人们的信仰和文化，并呈现出激励他们的工作哲学。领导者会鼓励员工的不同优势，培养独特的人才，与寻求在工作环境中获得更好的稳定性的管理者相比。通过包容、一致性和一致性来保持工作的稳定性将是管理者关注的焦点。经理处理纠纷解决等过程，以促进稳定和建立规则，行使工作权力。因此，管理和领导是不同的元素，有一些重叠的方面和手段，但目的是不同的(Zaleznik, 2004)。
类似地，Bennis(1989)等研究人员认为，领导者是原创的，激发信任和人力资源的长期方向，而管理者管理和依赖于控制方面，通常管理者专注于短期计划。Chapman(1989)认为，领导者会通过承担可计算的风险和设定长期目标来推进公司的运营。相比较而言，管理者试图通过稳定他们当前的业务，并尽量减少风险和冲突来保护他们。这些目标更短期，但在战略上是一致的。与挑战现状的领导者相比，管理者进一步接受现状(Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997)。
The manager as an individual will focus on aspects of controlling and administering rules and protocols for the efficient working of the organization. While management aspects and leadership aspects do overlap, there are some differences in how their respective duties are disseminated. For instance, management skills as can be expected from a manager will be used to plan activities for projects and build and guide people towards accomplishment of missions and goals of the organization. On the other hand, the leadership focus is more about influencing people and guiding them by motivation or inspiration. Some amount of management control is relinquished in leadership. The leader guides, motivates and inspires but does not control. Researcher Abraham Zaleznik writes about the difference of leaders and managers. In his article, he presents how an organization will need effective managers and leaders but then their contribution to the organization is quite different (Zaleznik, 2004). Leaders promote change. They present newer approaches to work based on industry changes. They understand the belief and culture of people and present philosophy of work that motivates them. The leader would encourage the different strengths of employees and nourish unique talent as compared against the manager that seeks to achieve better stability in the work environment. Stability through inclusion, uniformity and consistency in work would be the focus of the manager. The manager handles such processes like dispute resolution in order to promote stability and establish rules exercising work authority. Management and leadership hence are different elements with some overlapping aspects and means, but the ends are different (Zaleznik, 2004).
Similarly, researchers like Bennis (1989) argue that a leader is original and inspires trust and long-term directions for human resources while the manager administers and relies on control aspects and usually the manager is focused on short range plans. Chapman (1989) argues that a leader will advance their company operations by taking calculated risks and setting long term goals. Comparatively, the manager seeks to protect their current operations by stabilizing them and minimize risks and conflicts as well. The goals are more short term but aligned strategically. The manager furthermore accepts the status-quo as compared to the leader who challenges the status-quo (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997).