法:选取53名年龄在10 – 18岁之间、有慢性疼痛报告的儿童，包括头痛、功能性神经-内脏疼痛障碍、慢性局部疼痛综合征和纤维肌痛。样本从大专院校儿科诊所招募。
方法:采用不公正体验问卷调查儿童不公正感知与慢性疼痛的关系。本研究采用定量研究、非实验设计和回顾性临床数据分析，因为本研究首次调查不公正的感知和青年人群慢性疼痛之间的关系。因此，该研究需要一个大的群体作为其样本，以确保结果可以一般化。本研究选取139名来自美国中西部三级护理跨学科儿科疼痛管理诊所的患者，年龄在8 – 18岁之间，患有与慢性疾病、损伤、运动活动或外科手术相关的慢性疼痛。
Methodology: Fifty-three children aged between ten to eighteen years and had reported chronic pain including headaches, functional neuro-visceralpain disorder, chronicregional pain syndrome, and fibromyalgia were selected. The sample was recruited form tertiary university-based pediatric clinic.
Findings: The study found that sixty-two percent of children tried to hide their pain, because they did not want to receive empathy from peers and family members. They thought it might keep them from becoming anxious and depressed. Some children felt powerless from chronic pain because it could not be cured. Approximately fifty-three percent of participants felt isolation, stigmatized, misunderstood and different from other children at school, especially peers and classmates. Because of chronic pain, participants physical activity was limited which caused them to develop the negative emotion such as anger, sadness, worry or anxiety, and fear. In addition, some participants worried about how pain will influence their future plans and careers. Several participants informed that there was lack of physician understanding and disregard from their perspective.
All previous studies investigated injustice perceptions about pain are essential in adult patients and a possible treatment focus.
Method: The study made use of an Injustice Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the relationship between injustice perceptions and chronic pain in children. This study used quantitative research andnon- experimental design and retrospective analysis of clinical data because this study is first to investigate association between injustice perceptions and chronic pain in youth population. Thus, the study required a large population group as its sample in order to ensure that the results could be generalized. This study selected 139 participants aged between eight to eighteen years with chronic pain related to chronic disease, injury, sports activity, or surgery in Midwestern tertiary care interdisciplinary pediatric pain management clinic.
Results and Findings: The study found that higher levels of perceived injustice were significantly related with higher levels of pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, and functional disability. This also had a relationship with poorer emotional, social, and school functioning. When children had chronic pain, their feelings of hopelessness aroused and they felt a sense of powerlessness. Thus, compared with children having normal physical activity, adolescents with chronic pain had high risk of getting depressed. Moreover, perceived injustice was absolutely associated to social and school functioning. Chronic pain was related to frequently missed school days, poor academic performance, and poor classmate relationship that may cause social ostracism. Moreover, rejection perceived as unjust could lead to anger and antisocial behaviour. These responses may increase poor academic achievement and social isolation of children. In addition, perceived injustice was significantly and inimitably associated with functional disability.