The Ubaid period witnessed the first rudimentary social structures, comprising of local chieftains, priests, farmers and animal-herders. With increasing dependence on agriculture, granaries were built and while the initial custodianship of the granaries, along with a large chunk of the agricultural land (up to one third) lay with the temple, the power of kingship escalated with time and claimed what was earlier considered as temple property. During the Uruk Period, ‘Ensi’ were officials who overlooked the operations of temples, while ‘Villeins’ were the subordinates who worked under them. The cuniform-engraved clay tablets, cylinder seals and bevel-rimmed bowls are some of the prime excavated findings that throw light on Early Mesopotamian Society, and all of these date back to the Uruk Period (Postgate 53). While Pottery was emphasized on during the Ubaid Period, the Uruk Period witnessed the advent of Copper Artefacts.
An interesting sociological aspect of this period is the gradual decline in the position of women in society. The Ubaid Period and Early Uruk Period Settlements are known to have has equal representation of women in the Village ‘Council of Elders’. But towards the late Uruk Period and the rise of City States, the role of women started getting confined to household chores and child-raising. Despite this development, women were still entitled to inherit property as well as get married and divorced based on their free will. Rituals and festivals had an important place in society, and were associated with agricultural cycles, lunar phases, equinoxes, accomplishments of the reigning monarch etc. The practice of Slavery was not initially followed, but with increasing wars and conquests, it came into being (Matthews 33).