The ascending world population has made urbanization of landscapes as an inevitable action. A limited amount of land is available for residence, commercial, industrial and other purposes in town and therefore the areas that lie in an earthquake zone also need to be utilized so as to accommodate for the demands. Moreover, the limited advantages of conventional structural materials calls in for the need to discover and investigate more into the field of construction to make out for the best possible use of available resources.
In civil engineering, steel reinforcement in concrete and timber walls has become an idea not worth sticking to due to the limited advantages and also due to the common rusting and corrosion problems of steel bars. Thus, alternatives are being searched and innovative structural materials are investigated to serve as a better replacement. This paper discusses that how effectively a timber shear wall can be reinforced with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) of NI-TI.
Natural hazard mitigation has become an increasingly important issue, especially in the Western parts of the world where continental climates are battlegrounds for clashing tropical and polar air masses resulting in tornadoes and hurricanes. Another natural disaster which is of pivotal attention in this study is faced in the name of earthquakes and no part of the world is safe from it, though it might be more frequent and intense in some areas and less in others.
Occurrence of earthquakes:
Earthquake is a natural phenomenon and occurs due to the underground plate movement where plate tectonic theory comes into play. However, the most disastrous events occur due to collision of two plates or due to the slipping of one plate over another. This is most common in and around the corners of the Pacific Plate, thus, America, Japan, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands fall into regions most vulnerable to earthquakes of high scale. Another collision zone exists at the interaction of Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate.